A conversation with Gert-Jan Steeneveld
Principle investigator of Amsterdam
In Amsterdam we have unique set of measurements of meteorological variables from street to metropolitan scale

Amsterdam, as the capital of the Netherlands, is a hotspot of population density, industrialization, culture and innovation. The city contains a mix of quarters, ranging from historical to young, high-rise to extensive, build up to green in which people live, work and leisure.

In Amsterdam we study the urban climate and how people experience it. The city is often warmer (the urban heat island effect) and winds around buildings can be gusty. Vegetation, green roofs and street design affect the city’s climate.

The Amsterdam Atmospheric Monitoring Supersite (AAMS) is run by MAQ at Wageningen University in collaboration with the Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions, the Municipality of Amsterdam, and the I-Change project.

The AAMS, established in 2014, consists of 24 weather stations across Amsterdam that measure temperature, humidity and wind speed, while some also observe precipitation and black globe temperature. It contains an eddy covariance flux tower measuring turbulent fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat (evapotranspiration), CO2 and methane, and contains a scintillometer as well. Moreover, we measure up- and downwelling components of the solar and thermal radiation. During occasional Intensive Observations Periods radio soundings were launched, a sodar was installed and tri-cycle observations of human thermal comfort were performed. The network is used to monitor the urban heat island effect, heat stress, the urban water balance, the city’s carbon footprint, to address the potential for solar panels, and for validation of weather prediction models for cities.


The Loobos site and its data is operational and available from November 2022 onwards. Note that this may vary for specific data streams.

“The Amsterdam Atmospheric Monitoring Supersite was one of the first networks combining surface weather, fluxes, radiation, and carbon footprint data.”


“The network also serves research and applications in heatmap development, renewable energy, urban hydrology, plastic pollution, and urban design and planning.”


“Since summer 2022 we also measure indoor temperatures in households to understand and quantify indoor human heat stress.”